Often, the crankshaft rotation speed is 2-3 times higher in a car when it is idling than when it is warmed up. It is a significant sign that ensures that internal combustion in the engine is stable and reduces the period towards reaching operating temperature.
Looking out for an air-fuel mixture problem that low rpm may indicate after the engine warms up is essential.
What RPM should the engine have at cold?
After starting the gasoline engine, the average crankshaft speed is 1200-1500 rpm using an electronic or mechanical idle speed controller or independently. The diesel engine warms up to 1100 rpm.
For automatic control, the speed may gradually decrease to 600-800 rpm. This may change according to complex patterns like the exact number of engine revolutions during a warm-up at idle based on the power system design, the electronic control unit (ECU) settings, and the temperature of the coolant.
For models corresponding to the EURO-5 and EURO-6 classes, the ECU will rarely raise the cold speed above 1100 rpm. This is because of the need to limit the number of harmful emissions.
For some cars, the crankshaft speeds go to 8800-1000 rpm immediately after it is started, and only then does it increase. The mode introduced results from load reduction when the engine is at low temperatures when it is more vulnerable.
The temperature also influences the decrease in some revolutions during a cold start. During cold weather, it may take more time to warm the coolant; thus, the crankshaft speed may not drop for over 5 minutes compared to summer, where it does so in 2-3 minutes.
Therefore, a slight fluctuation of less than 1200 rpm after starting does not always indicate problems. The only cause for concern can only present itself when the speed does not go above 600 rpm, drops below 400, or does not stabilize until it warms up.
What are warm-up speeds, and how are they regulated?
Warm-up speeds are responsible for the stable operation of the cold engine. While idle, warm-up speeds help warm up the engine and coolant at suitable temperatures and supply viscous oils efficiently.
The operating time is also reduced in the process, making it convenient for the engine as they are easily subjected to increased wear. Car models with catalytic converters have an advantage since quick heating on the surface is provided.
Low warm-up speeds caused by different malfunctions can only lead to more malfunctions; thus, the car may not start in lower temperatures.
Older cars with a diesel engine have the operating mode manually changed so that as they warm up, the speed increases and the damper gradually closes.
For modern vehicles with an ECU, an automatic crankshaft speed is set depending on the temperature of the coolant. Injection pumps are used on diesel engines by changing the mode of operation.
Why is the idle low on a cold start?
Usually, it is a sign of an air-fuel mixture from an excess of air or interruptions in the fuel supply. The malfunctions, however, are linked to the design features of the power system. Some of the common causes include:
Failed coolant temperature sensor.
The ECU cannot receive reliable information from the coolant temperature, thus giving an incorrect signal.
A jammed IAC (Idle Air Control actuator)
This results in a lean mixture caused by the excessive opening of the IAC. When the throttle is not closed correctly, the excess air intake causes contamination, and the incorrect adaptation of the valve leads to a lean mixture.
The cold crankshaft speed is adjusted for a diesel engine by changing the operating mode using a speed compensator. When having low rpm on a hard diesel, some of the faults that may be brought about include:
Defective thermal valve/speed compensator
It is a clear indication that there is no adjustment of the mode of operation of the injection pump depending on the temperature.
Failure of the mass flow air sensor
This means the ECU receives false data leading to the incorrect control operation of the high-pressure fuel pump.
Stuck EGR valve
It comes up as a result of air-fuel mixture disturbance used by failure to supply exhaust gases to the combustion chamber.
Faulty injection pump. This can lead to the violation of mixture formation when the high-pressure pump does not work.
Some of the malfunctions that can cause low RPMs when cold is caused due to the following issues:
- Mechanical issues cause the leakage of unaccounted air.
- Clogged fuel filers or faulty fuel pumps may cause fuel delivery problems.
- Damaged valves may cause a drop in compression in the combustion chamber.
- Ignition system failure due to incorrect adjustment, high-voltage wires, and sensors.
Identifying these issues is necessary and can be done so by checking all possible causes.